Bên cạnh PHÂN TÍCH ĐỀ THI THẬT TASK 2 (dạng advantages & disadvantages) Some students work while studying. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this trend and give your opinion? NGÀY 04/8/2020 IELTS WRITING GENERAL MÁY TÍNH (kèm bài được sửa hs đi thi), IELTS TUTOR cũng cung cấp đề thi IELTS READING: New Zealand’s early crafts and traditions (thi ngày 20/02/2023)
I. Kiến thức liên quan
II. Đề thi IELTS READING: New Zealand’s early crafts and traditions (thi ngày 20/02/2023)
The first groups of people to discover New Zealand came from Polynesia. Exactly when these explorers arrived has often been a matter of debate, but today the general understanding is that it was during the 13th century that their canoes eventually landed on New Zealand's shores. In some ways the new country must have seemed like an ideal place to settle: the land was fertile, and thick forests provided firewood, shelter and building materials. Still, life would have been challenging for the different Polynesian tribes, who had to adapt to a new environment. The tribes only began to refer to themselves as Maori, meaning 'ordinary people', when Europeans in search of new opportunities began arriving in the 18th century. To the Maori, of course, the European settlers and sailors were not 'ordinary', but very strange.
It was not only a knowledge of canoe-building and navigation that the Polynesians brought to New Zealand. They were also skilled craftsmen. There is archaeological evidence that the tools they produced were of high quality and would have enabled tribes to plant and harvest crops. Craftsmen were also occupied with making weapons such as knives and axes, which were used for both construction and fighting. Interestingly, some crafts that had once been popular in Polynesian islands were no longer done in New Zealand, although researchers are unsure why. Pottery is an example of this, despite the fact that the clay needed to make pots and bowls could easily be found in the new country.
The Maori word whakairo can be translated as 'decorative work' — this can refer to bone, wood and greenstone carving. Although Maori carvers were influenced by their Polynesian heritage, they developed their own style, including the curved patterns and spirals inspired by New Zealand plants. The same term can also apply to weaving; the crafting of, for example, woven baskets and mats all required knowledge and skill. Carving greenstone, or pounamu as it is called in Maori, was a long process, requiring great patience. Further, because of this mineral's rarity, any greenstone object, such as a piece of jewellery or cutting blade, was a prized possession. For that reason, it was the few people of high status rather than low-ranking members of a tribe who would possess such objects.
As New Zealand had no native mammals except for bats, dolphins and whales, Maori largely had to depend on plants to provide material for their clothing, including their cloaks. Weavers experimented with the inner bark of the houhere, the lacebark tree, but found it unsuitable. But the dried-out leaves and fibres of the flax plant provided a solution. Once a cloak had been woven from flax, it could be decorated. Borders might be dyed black or red, for example. In the case of superior ones made for chiefs or the more important members of a tribe, feathers from kiwi, pigeons or other native birds might be attached. All flax cloaks were rectangular in shape, so had no sleeves, and neither was a hood a feature of this garment. Short cloaks were fastened around a person's neck, and came only to the waist.
Pins made of bone, wood or greenstone allowed longer cloaks to be secured at the shoulder; these were a type that were often used for ceremonial occasions. Of course, the construction of the cloaks was influenced by the plant material available to Maori weavers. This meant that cloaks were loose-fitting, and while they protected wearers from New Zealand's strong sunshine, they were not useful during the winter months. A cloak made from fur or wool could provide insulation from the cold, but not so a cloak made of flax.
The warriors of a tribe required a different kind of cloak to help protect them. To create these special cloaks, the tough fibres of the mountain cabbage tree were used instead. It is not clear to researchers what the entire process involved, but they believe the fibres were left to soak in water over a period of time in order to soften them and make them easier to weave together. Later, once the whole cloak had been constructed, it would be dyed black. To do this, Maori weavers covered it in a special kind of mud they had collected from riverbeds. This was rich in iron due to New Zealand's volcanic landscape. The particular advantage of these cloaks was that the tough cabbage tree fibres they were woven from could reduce the impact of spear tips during a fight with enemy tribes. It is fortunate that some cloaks from the 1800s still survive and can provide us with further insight into the materials and construction techniques that Maori craftsmen used.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write:
TRUE If the statement agrees with the information
FALSE If the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this
1. It is now widely thought that humans reached New Zealand in the 13th century.
2. The first Europeans to come to New Zealand were keen to trade with Maori.
3. Members of Maori tribes were responsible for either tool- or weapon-making.
4. A craft that the Maori once practiced in New Zealand was making pottery.
5. Weaving baskets and mats was seen as a form of decorative.
6. It used to be common for everyone in a Maori tribe to wear greenstone jewellery.
Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.
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