Tổng hợp topic Social issues (Racial matter, Unemployment, Women’s issue) IELTS READING (PDF)(Phần 2)

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Bên cạnh Phân tích và sửa chi tiết đề thi IELTS SPEAKING 4/8/2020 [Audio+Transcript], IELTS TUTOR cũng Tổng hợp topic Social issues (Racial matter, Unemployment, Women’s issue) IELTS READING (PDF) (Phần 2).

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II. Tổng hợp topic Social issues (Racial matter, Unemployment, Women’s issue) IELTS READING (PDF) (Phần 2)

14. Bài 14

Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 has seven sections, A-G. Choose the correct headings for sections A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings

i.  The results of the research into blood-variants
ii.  Dental evidence
iii.  Greenberg's analysis of the dental and linguistic evidence
iv.  Developments in the methods used to study early population movements
v.  Indian migration from Canada to the U.S.A.
vi.  Further genetic evidence relating to the three-wave theory
vii.  Long-standing questions about prehistoric migration to America
viii.  Conflicting views of the three-wave theory, based on non-genetic Evidence
ix.  Questions about the causes of prehistoric migration to America
x.  How analysis of blood-variants measures the closeness of the relationship between different populations

14.  Section  A
15.  Section  B
16.  Section  C
17.  Section  D
18.  Section  E
19.  Section  F

Example: Section G. Answer: viii

Population movements and genetics

A. Study of the origins and distribution of hum on populations used to be based on archaeological and fossil evidence. A number of techniques developed since the 1950s however have placed the study of these subjects on a sounder and more objective footing. The best information on early population movements is now being obtained from the archaeology of the living body the clues to be found in genetic material.

B. Recent work on the problem of when people first entered the Americas is an example of the value of these new techniques. North-east Asia and Siberia have long been accepted as the launching ground for the first human colonisers of the New World1. But was there one major wave of migration across the Bering Strait into the Americas, or several? And when did this event, or events, take place? In recent years, new clues have come from research into genetics, including the distribution of genetic markers in modern Native American2.

C. An important project, led by the biological anthropologist Robert Williams, focused on the variants (called Gm allotypes) of one particular protein - immunologic G - found in the fluid portion of human blood. All proteins 'drift', or produce variants, over the generations, and members of an interbreeding human population will share a set of such variants. Thus, by comparing the Gm allotypes of two different populations (e.g. two Indian tribes), one can establish their genetic distance, which itself can be calibrated to give an indication of the length of time since these populations last interbred.

D. Williams and his colleagues sampled the blood of over 5,000 American Indians in western North America during a twenty- year period. They found that their Gm allotypes could be divided into two groups, one of which also corresponded to the genetic typing of Central and South American Indians. Other tests showed that the Inuit (or Eskimo) and Aleut3 formed a third group. From this evidence, it was deduced that there had been three major waves of migration across the Bering Strait. The first, Paleo - Indian wave more than 15,000 years ago was ancestral to all Central and South American Indians. The second wave, about 14,000-12,000 years ago, brought No-Dene hunters ancestors of the Navajo and Apache (who only migrated south from Canada about 600 or 700 years ago). The third wave perhaps 10,000 or 9,000 years ago saw the migration from Northeast Asia of groups ancestral to the modem Eskimo and Aleut.

E. How far does other research support these conclusions? Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima- Papa go Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and  Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil. As would have been predicted by Robert Williams's work, all three groups appear to be descended from the same ancestral (Paleo-Indian) population.

F. There are two other kinds of research that have thrown some light on the origins of the Native American population; they involve the study of teeth and of languages. The biological anthropologist Christy Turner is on expert in the analysis of changing physical characteristics in human teeth. He argues that tooth crowns and roots5 have a high genetic component, minimally affected by environmental and other factors. Studies carried out by Turner of many thousands of New and Old World specimens, both ancient and modern, suggest 'hot the majority of prehistoric Americans are linked to Northern Asian populations by crown and root traits such as incisor6 shoveling (a scooping out on one or both surfaces of the tooth), single-rooted upper first premolars6 and triple-rooted lower first molars6.

According to Turner, this ties in with the idea of a single Paleo-Indian migration out of North Asia, which he sets at before 14,000 years ago by calibrating rates of dental micro-evolution. Tooth analyses also suggest that there were two later migrations of Na-Denes and Eskimo- Aleut.

G. The linguist Joseph Greenberg has, since the 1950s, argued that all Native American languages belong to a single Amerind family, except for No-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut - a view that gives credence to the idea of three main migrations. Greenberg is in a minority among fellow linguists, most of whom favor the notion of a great many waves of migration to account for the more than 1,000 - languages spoken at one time by American Indians. But there is no doubt that the new genetic and dental evidence provides strong backing for Greenberg's view. Dates given for the migrations should nevertheless be treated with caution, except where supported by hard archaeological evidence.

1. New World: the American continent, as opposed to the so-called Old World of Europe, Asia and Africa
2. Modern Native America: an American descended from the groups that were native to America
3. Inuit and Aleut: two of the ethnic groups native to the northern region of North America (i.e. northern Canada and Greenland)
4. DNA: the substance in which genetic information is stored
5. Crown/ Root:  Parts of the tooth
6. incisor/premolar/molar:  kinds of teeth

Questions 20 and 21
The discussion of Williams's research indicates the periods at which early people are thought to have migrated along certain routes. There are six routes, A-F, marked on the map below.

Complete the table below. Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 20 and 21 on your answer sheet.

Population movements and genetics
Population movements and genetics

Questions 22-25
Reading Passage 2 refers to the three-wave theory of early migration to the Americas. It also suggests in which of these three waves the ancestors of various groups of modern native Americans first reached the continent.

Classify the groups named in the table below as originating from

A. the first wave
B. the second wave
C. the third wave

Write the correct letter, A. B or C, in boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet.

Population movements and genetics

Question 26
Choose the correct letter, A. B. C or D. Write the correct letter in box 26 on your answer sheet.

Christy Turner's research involved the examination of ....
A. teeth from both prehistoric and modern Americans and Asians
B. thousands of people who live in either the New or the Old World
C. dental specimens from the majority of prehistoric Americans
D. the eating habits of American and Asian populations

15. Bài 15 

A VERY SPECIAL DOG

Florence is one of a new breed of dog who is making the work of the Australian Customs much easier.

It is 8.15 a.m. A flight lands at Melbourne's Tullamarine International Airport. Several hundred pieces of baggage are rushed from the plane onto a conveyor belt in the baggage reclaim annexe. Over the sound of roaring engines, rushing air vents and grinding generators, a dog barks. Florence, a sleek black labrador, wags her tail.

Among the cavalcade of luggage passing beneath Florence's all-smelling nose, is a nondescript hardback suitcase. Inside the case, within styrofoam casing, packed in loose pepper and coffee, wrapped in freezer paper and heat-sealed in plastic, are 18 kilograms of hashish.

The cleverly concealed drugs don't fool super-sniffer Florence, and her persistent scratching at the case alerts her handler. Florence is one of a truly new breed: the product of what is perhaps the only project in the world dedicated to breeding dogs solely to detect drugs. Ordinary dogs have a 0.1% chance of making it in drug detection. The new breeding programme, run by the Australian Customs, is so successful that more than 50% of its dogs make the grade.

And what began as a wholly practical exercise in keeping illegal drugs out of Australia may end up playing a role in an entirely different sphere - the comparatively esoteric world of neurobiology. It turns out that it's not Florence's nose that makes her a top drug dog, but her unswerving concentration, plus a few other essential traits. Florence could help neurobiologists to understand both what they call 'attention processing', the brain mechanisms that determine what a person pays attention to and for how long, and its flip side, problems such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). As many as 3 to 5% of children are thought to suffer from the condition in the US, where the incidence is highest, although diagnosis is often controversial.

The Australian Customs has used dogs to find drugs since 1969. Traditionally, the animals came from pounds and private breeders. But, in 1993, fed up with the poor success rate of finding good dogs this way, John Vandeloo, senior instructor with the Detector Dog Unit, joined forces with Kath Champness, then a doctoral student at the University of Melbourne, and set up a breeding programme.

Champness began by defining six essential traits that make a detector dog. First, every good detector dog must love praise because this is the only tool trainers have at their disposal, but the dog must still be able to work for long periods without it. Then it needs a strong hunting instinct and the stamina to keep sniffing at the taxing rate of around 300 times per minute. The ideal detector is also fearless enough to deal with jam-packed airport crowds and the roaring engine rooms of cargo ships.

The remaining two traits are closely related and cognitive in nature. A good detector must be capable of focusing on the task of searching for drugs, despite the distractions in any airport or dockside. This is what neurobiologists call 'selective attention'. And finally, with potentially tens of thousands of hiding places for drugs, the dog must persevere and maintain focus for hours at a time. Neurobiologists call this 'sustained attention'.

Vandeloo and Champness assess the dogs' abilities to concentrate by marking them on a scale of between one and five according to how well they remain focused on a toy tossed into a patch of grass. Ivan scores a feeble one. He follows the toy, gets half-way there, then becomes distracted by places where the other dogs have been or by flowers in the paddock. Rowena, on the other hand, has phenomenal concentration; some might even consider her obsessive. When Vandeloo tosses the toy, nothing can distract her from the searching, not other dogs, not food. And even if no one is around to encourage her, she keeps looking just the same. Rowena gets a five.

A person's ability to pay attention, like a dog's, depends on a number of overlapping cognitive behaviours, including memory and learning - the neurobiologist's attention processing. Attention in humans can be tested by asking subjects to spot colours on a screen while ignoring shapes, or to spot sounds while ignoring visual cues, or to take a 'vigilance test'. Sitting a vigilance test is like being a military radar operator. Blips appear on a cluttered monitor infrequently and at irregular intervals. Rapid detection of all blips earns a high score. Five minutes into the test, one in ten subjects will start to miss the majority of the blips, one in ten will still be able to spot nearly all of them and the rest will come somewhere in between.

Vigilance tasks provide signals that are infrequent and unpredictable - which is exactly what is expected of the dogs when they are asked to notice just a few odour molecules in the air, and then to home in on the source. During a routine mail screen that can take hours, the dogs stay so focused that not even a postcard lined with 0.5 grams of heroin and hidden in a bulging sack of letters escapes detection.

With the current interest in attentional processing, as well as human conditions that have an attention deficit component, such as ADHD, it is predicted that it is only a matter of time before the super-sniffer dogs attract the attention of neurobiologists trying to cure these conditions.

Questions 28-32
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.

28. The drugs in the suitcase
A were hidden inside the lining.
B had pepper and coffee around them.
C had previously been frozen.
D had a special smell to repel dogs.

29. Most dogs are not good at finding drugs because
A they don’t work well with a handler.
B they lack the right training.
C the drugs are usually very well hidden.
D they lack certain genetic qualities.

30. Florence is a good drug detector because she
A has a better sense of smell than other dogs.
B is not easily distracted.
C has been specially trained to work at airports.
D enjoys what she is doing.

31. Dogs like Florence may help scientists understand
A how human and dog brains differ.
B how people can use both sides of their brain.
C why some people have difficulty paying attention.
D the best way for people to maintain their focus.

32. In 1993, the Australian Customs
A decided to use its own dogs again.
B was successful in finding detector dogs.
C changed the way it obtained dogs.
D asked private breeders to provide more dogs.
Questions 33-36
Choose FOUR letters, A-J. Write the correct letters in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The writer mentions a number of important qualities that detector dogs must have.
Which FOUR of the following qualities are mentioned by the writer of the text?
A. a good relationship with people
B. a willingness to work in smelly conditions
C. quick reflexes
D. an ability to work in noisy conditions
E. an ability to maintain concentration
F. a willingness to work without constant encouragement
G. the skill to find things inlong grass
H. experience as hunters
I. a desire for people’s approval
J. the ability to search a large number of places rapidly

Questions 37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text? In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

37. Methods of determining if a child has ADHD are now widely accepted.
38. After about five minutes of a vigilance test, some subjects will still notice some blips.
39. Vigilance tests help improve concentration.
40. If a few grams of a drug are well concealed, even the best dogs will miss them.

16. Bài 16

Questions 27-30
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-vii, in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. Commercial pressures on people in charge

ii. Mixed views on current changes to museums

iii. Interpreting the facts to meet visitor expectations

iv. The international dimension

v. Collections of factual evidence

vi. Fewer differences between public attractions

vii. Current reviews and suggestions

Example: Paragraph A. Answer: v
27. Paragraph B

28. Paragraph C

29. Paragraph D

30. Paragraph E

The Development of Museums

A. The conviction that historical relics provide infallible testimony about the past is rooted in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when science was regarded as objective and value free. As one writer observes: 'Although it is now evident that artifacts are as easily altered as chronicles, public faith in their veracity endures: a tangible relic seems ipso facto real! Such conviction was, until recently, reflected in museum displays. Museums used to look — and some still do — much like storage rooms of objects packed together in showcases: good for scholars who wanted to study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor, to whom lt all looked alike. Similarly, the information accompanying the objects often made little sense to the lay visitor. The content and format of explanations dated back to a time when the museum was the exclusive domain of the scientific researcher.

B. Recently, however, attitudes towards history and the way lt should be presented have altered. The key word in heritage display is now 'experience the more exciting the better and, if possible, involving all the senses. Good examples of this approach ln the UK are the Jorvik Centre in York; the National Museum of Photography, Elm ­­and Television in Bradford; and the imperial War Museum in London. In the US the trend emerged much earlier. Williamsburg has been a prototype for many heritage developments in other parts of the world. No one can predict where the process will end. On so-called heritage sites, the re-enactment of historical events is increasingly popular, and computers will soon provide virtual reality experiences, which will present visitors with a vivid image of the period of their choice, in which they themselves can act as if part of the historical environment. Such developments have been criticised as an intolerable vulgarisation, but the success of many historical theme parks and similar locations suggests that the majority of the public does not share this opinion.

C. In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other. is gradually evaporating. They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another. For example, museums have adopted storylines for exhibitions, sites have accepted 'theming’ as a relevant tool, and theme parks are moving towards more authenticity and research-based presentations in zoos, animals are no longer kept in cages, but in great spaces, either ln the open air or in enormous greenhouses, such as the jungle and desert environments in Burgers' Zoo In Holland. This particular trend is regarded as one of the major developments in the presentation of natural history in the twentieth century.

D. Theme parks are undergoing other changes, too, as they try to present more serious social and cultural issues, and move away from fantasy. This development is a response to market forces and, although museums and heritage sites have a special. rather distinct, role to fullfil, they are also operating in a very competitive environment, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their free time. Heritage and museum experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to attract their visitors: their assets are already in place. However, exhibits must be both based on artefacts and facts as we know them, and attractively presented. Those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history are thus ln a difficult position, as they must steer a narrow course between the demands of ’evidence' and ‘attractiveness especially given the increasing need in the heritage industry for income generating activities.

E. It could be claimed that in order to make everything in heritage more `real` historical accuracy must be increasingly altered. For example, Pithecanthropus erectus is depicted in an Indonesian museum with Malay facial features, because this corresponds to public perceptions. Similarly, in the Museum of Natural History in Washington, Neanderthal man is shown making a dominant gesture to his wife. Such presentations tell us more about contemporary perceptions of the world than about our ancestors. There is one compensation, however, for the professionals who make these interpretations: If they did not provide the interpretation, visitors would do it for themselves. based on their own ideas. misconceptions and prejudices. And no matter how exciting the result, it would contain a lot more bias than the presentations provided by experts.

F. Human bias is inevitable, but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves. The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process. Castles, palaces and cathedrals have a longer lifespan than the dwellings of ordinary people. The same applies to the famishing and other contents of the premises. In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century was occupied by approximately the same number of inhabitants as today, people lived within the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modern Leyden. In most of the houses, several families lived together in circumstances beyond our imagination. Yet In museums, line period rooms give only an image of the lifestyle of the upper class of that era. No wonder that people who stroll around exhibitions are filled with nostalgia; the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better in the past. This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museums and heritage centers.

Questions 31-36
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet.

31. Compared with today's museums those of the past
A. did not present history in a detailed way.
B. were not primarily intended for the public.
C. were more clearly organized.
D. preserved items with greater care.

32. According to the writer, current trends in the heritage industry
A. emphasize personal involvement.
B. have their origins in York and London,
C. rely on computer images.
D. reflect minority tastes.

33. The writer says that museums, heritage sites and theme parks
A. often work in close partnership.
B. try to preserve separate identities.
C. have similar exhibits.
D. are less easy to distinguish than before.

34. The writer says that in preparing exhibits for museums, experts
A. should pursue a single objective.
B. have to do a certain amount of language translation.
C. should be free from commercial constraints.
D. have to balance conflicting priorities.

35. In paragraph E, the writer suggests that some museum exhibits
A. fall to match visitor expectations.
B. are based on the false assumptions of professionals.
C. reveal more about present beliefs than about the past.
D. allow visitors to make more use of their imagination.

36. The passage ends by noting that our view of history is biased because
A. we fail to use our imagination.
B. only very durable objects remain from the past.
C. we tend to ignore things that displease us.
D. museum exhibits focus too much on the local area.
Questions 37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

37. Consumers prefer theme parks which avoid serious issues.
38. More people visit museums than theme parks.
39. The boundaries of Leyden have changed little since the seventeenth century.
40. Museums can give a false impression of how life used to be.

17. Bài 17

OUT OF THE ASHES

A. On the afternoon of 30th August 1989, fire broke out at Uppark, a large eighteenth-century house in Sussex. For a year builders had been replacing the lead on the roof, and by a stroke of irony, were due to finish the next day, on August 31st. Within fifteen minutes of the alarm being sounded, the fire brigade had arrived on the scene, though nothing was to survive of the priceless collection on the first floor apart from an oil painting of a dog which the firemen swept up as they finally retreated from the blaze. But due to the courage and swift action of the previous owners, the Meade-Featherstonhaugh family, and the staff, stewards and visitors to the house, who formed human chains to pass the precious pieces of porcelain, furniture and paintings out on to the lawn, 95 per cent of the contents from the ground floor and the basement were saved. As the fire continued to rage, the National Trust’s conservators were being mobilised, and that evening local stationers were especially opened to provide the bulk supplies of blotting paper so desperately needed in the salvage operation.

B. The following morning, Uppark stood open to the sky. A sludge of wet charcoal covered the ground floor and basement, and in every room charred and fallen timbers lay amongst the smoke. It was a scene of utter devastation.
C. After the initial sense of shock, the days which followed the fire were filled with discoveries. Helped by volunteers, the National Trust’s archaeologists and conservators swung into action, first of all marking the site out into a grid and then salvaging everything down to the last door handle. The position of each fragment was recorded, and all the debris was stored in countless dustbins before being shifted and categorised.

D. There was great excitement as remnants of the lantern from the Staircase Hall were pulled out from the debris of two fallen floors, and also three weeks later when the Red Room carpet, thought to have been totally lost, was found wrapped around the remains of a piano. There was a lucky reprieve for the State Bed too. Staff who had left the scene at 3 am on the night of the fire had thought its loss was inevitable, but when they returned the next morning it had escaped largely undamaged. Firemen, directed by the National Trust’s conservators from outside the Tapestry Room window, dismantled the silk-hung bed and passed it out piece by piece. Twenty minutes later the ceiling fell in.
E. The scale of the task to repair Uppark was unprecedented in the National Trust. The immediate question was whether it should be done at all. A decision had to be whatever had not been damaged by the fire was exposed to the elements. Within a month, after consulting many experts and with the agreement of the National Trust’s Executive Committee, the restoration programme began. It was undertaken for three main reasons. After the fire it had become apparent just how much remained of the structure with its splendidly decorated interiors; to have pulled the house down, as one commentator suggested, would have been vandalism. Also, the property was covered by insurance, so the repairs would not call upon the National Trust’s own funds. Lastly, much had been saved of the fine collection acquired especially for Uppark from 1747 by Sir Matthew Featherstonhaugh and his son Harry. These objects belonged nowhere else, and complete restoration of the house would allow them to be seen and enjoyed again in their original setting.

F. The search for craftsmen and women capable of doing the intricate restoration work was nation-wide. Once the quality and skill of the individual or company had been ascertained, they had to pass an economic test, as every job was competitively tendered. This has had enormous benefits because not only have a number of highly skilled people come to the fore – woodcarvers for example, following in the footsteps of Grinling Gibbons – but many of them, for example, plasterers, have relearnt the skills of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which can now be of use to other country house owners when the need arises.
G. In June 1994 the building programme was completed, on time and on budget. The total cost of the work to repair the house and its contents came to be nearly £20 million, largely met from insurance. In addition, it made economic sense for the National Trust to invest time and money in upgrading water and heating systems, installing modern environmental controls, and updating fire and security equipment.

H. The final stages of restoration and the massive programme of reinstallation took eight months. The family and the room stewards were visibly moved when returning to their old haunts, perhaps the best testament that the spirit of Uppark had not died. But the debate will no doubt continue as to whether or not it was right to repair the house after the fire. The National Trust has done its best to remain true to Uppark; it is for others to judge the success of the project.

Note: The National Trust is a charitable organisation in Britain set up over a hundred years ago to preserve the national heritage.

Questions 28-33
The text has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Which paragraphs contain the following information?

Write the appropriate letters, A-H, in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.

28. the procedure for sorting through the remains of the fire
29. how Uppark looked after the fire
30. improvements made to the rebuilt Uppark
31. the selection of people to carry out the repair work
32. why the National Trust chose to rebuild Uppark
33. how people reacted to the rebuilt Uppark

Questions 34-37
Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 34-37 on your answer sheet.

34. On what date in 1989 should the original repairs to the roof have been completed?
35. By what method were things rescued immediately from the burning house?
36. After the fire, what did the conservators require large quantities of immediately?
37. Into what did the conservation put material recovered from the fire?

Questions 38-40
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

38. The fire destroyed
A all the contents of the ground floor.
B most of the contents of the basement.
C the roof of the house.
D all the contents of the first floor.

39. One of the reasons the National Trust decided to rebuild Uppark was that
A the Meade-Featherstonhaugh family wanted them to.
B the building as it stood was unsound.
C they wouldn’t have to pay for the repairs.
D nothing on this scale had been tried before.

40. Some of the craftsmen and women employed in the restoration of Uppark have benefited because
A they were very well paid for doing intricate work.
B their businesses have become more competitive.
C they were able to work with Grinling Gibbons
D they acquired skills they did not have previously.

18. Bài 18

Questions 14-21
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-xi, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. A fresh and important long-term goal
ii. Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
iii. Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
iv. Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
v. The environmental costs of road transport
vi. The escalating cost of rail transport
vii. The need to achieve transport rebalance
viii. The rapid growth of private transport
ix. Plans to develop major road networks
x. Restricting road use through charging policies alone
xi. Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission

14. Paragraph A

15. Paragraph B

16. Paragraph C

17. Paragraph D

18. Paragraph E

19. Paragraph G

20. Paragraph H

21. Paragraph I
Example: Paragraph F. Answer: vii

European Transport Systems 1990 - 2010

What have been the trends and what are the prospects for European transport systems?

A. It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade, the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.

B. As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ”stock” economy to a ”flow” economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.

C. The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular, road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998,road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.

D. However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EU's common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years‟ time, that is by 2040.

E. In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2,the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020,compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.

F. At the same time, greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.

G. The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term, it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.

H. The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion's share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.

I. The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.

Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.

23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.

25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

19. Bài 19

The megafires of California

Drought, housing expansion, and oversupply of tinder make for bigger, hotter fires in the western United States

Wildfires are becoming an increasing menace in the western United States, with Southern California being the hardest hit area. There's a reason fire squads battling more frequent blazes in Southern California are having such difficulty containing the flames, despite better preparedness than ever and decades of experience fighting fires fanned by the ‘Santa Ana Winds’. The wildfires themselves, experts say, are generally hotter, faster, and spread more erratically than in the past.

Megafires, also called ‘siege fires’, are the increasingly frequent blazes that burn 500,000 acres or more - 10 times the size of the average forest fire of 20 years ago. Some recent wildfires are among the biggest ever in California in terms of acreage burned, according to state figures and news reports.

One explanation for the trend to more superhot fires is that the region, which usually has dry summers, has had significantly below normal precipitation in many recent years. Another reason, experts say, is related to the century- long policy of the US Forest Service to stop wildfires as quickly as possible. The unintentional consequence has been to halt the natural eradication of underbrush, now the primary fuel for megafires.

Three other factors contribute to the trend, they add. First is climate change, marked by a 1-degree Fahrenheit rise in average yearly temperature across the western states. Second is fire seasons that on average are 78 days longer than they were 20 years ago. Third is increased construction of homes in wooded areas.

‘We are increasingly building our homes in fire-prone ecosystems,’ says Dominik Kulakowski, adjunct professor of biology at Clark University Graduate School of Geography in Worcester, Massachusetts. ‘Doing that in many of the forests of the western US is like building homes on the side of an active volcano.'

In California, where population growth has averaged more than 600,000 a year for at least a decade, more residential housing is being built. ‘ What once was open space is now residential homes providing fuel to make fires burn with greater intensity,’ says Terry McHale of the California Department of Forestry firefighters' union. ‘With so much dryness, so many communities to catch fire, so many fronts to fight, it becomes an almost incredible job.'

That said, many experts give California high marks for making progress on preparedness in recent years, after some of the largest fires in state history scorched thousands of acres, burned thousands of homes, and killed numerous people. Stung in the past by criticism of bungling that allowed fires to spread when they might have been contained, personnel are meeting the peculiar challenges of neighborhood - and canyon- hopping fires better than previously, observers say.

State promises to provide more up-to-date engines, planes, and helicopters to fight fires have been fulfilled. Firefighters’ unions that in the past complained of dilapidated equipment, old fire engines, and insufficient blueprints for fire safety are now praising the state's commitment, noting that funding for firefighting has increased, despite huge cuts in many other programs. ‘We are pleased that the current state administration has been very proactive in its support of us, and [has] come through with budgetary support of the infrastructure needs we have long sought,' says Mr. McHale of the firefighters’ union.

Besides providing money to upgrade the fire engines that must traverse the mammoth state and wind along serpentine canyon roads, the state has invested in better command-and-control facilities as well as in the strategies to run them. ‘In the fire sieges of earlier years, we found that other jurisdictions and states were willing to offer mutual-aid help, but we were not able to communicate adequately with them,’ says Kim Zagaris, chief of the state's Office of Emergency Services Fire and Rescue Branch.

After a commission examined and revamped communications procedures, the statewide response ‘has become far more professional and responsive,’ he says. There is a sense among both government officials and residents that the speed, dedication, and coordination of firefighters from several states and jurisdictions are resulting in greater efficiency than in past ‘siege fire’ situations.

In recent years, the Southern California region has improved building codes, evacuation procedures, and procurement of new technology. ‘I am extraordinarily impressed by the improvements we have witnessed,’ says Randy Jacobs, a Southern California- based lawyer who has had to evacuate both his home and business to escape wildfires.‘ Notwithstanding all the damage that will continue to be caused by wildfires, we will no longer suffer the loss of life endured in the past because of the fire prevention and firefighting measures that have been put in place, ’ he says.

Questions 1-6

Complete the notes below. Choose ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

Wildfires

  • Characteristics of wildfires and wildfire conditions today compared to the past:
    • occurrence: more frequent
    • temperature: hotter
    • speed: faster
    • movement: 1..................................... more unpredictably
    • size of fires: 2..................................... greater on average than two decades ago
  • Reasons wildfires cause more damage today compared to the past:
    • rainfall: 3..................................... average
    • more brush to act as 4.....................................
    • increase in yearly temperature
    • extended fire 5.....................................
    • more building of 6..................................... in vulnerable places

Questions 7-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

7. The amount of open space in California has diminished over the last ten years.

8. Many experts believe California has made little progress in readying itself to fight fires.

9. Personnel in the past have been criticised for mishandling fire containment.

10. California has replaced a range of firefighting tools.

11. More firefighters have been hired to improve fire-fighting capacity.

12. Citizens and government groups disapprove of the efforts of different states and agencies working together.

13. Randy Jacobs believes that loss of life from fires will continue at the same levels, despite changes made.

20. Bài 20

Collecting as a hobby

Collecting must be one of the most varied of human activities, and it's one that many of us psychologists find fascinating.

Many forms of collecting have been dignified with a technical name: an archtophilist collects teddy bears, a philatelist collects postage stamps, and a deltiologist collects postcards. Amassing hundreds or even thousands of postcards, chocolate wrappers or whatever, takes time, energy and money that could surely to much more productive use. And yet there are millions of collectors around the world. Why do they do it?

There are the people who collect because they want to make money - this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They'll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit. But there may well be a psychological element, too - buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph. And as selling online is so easy, more and more people are joining in.

Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people. Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer.

Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the individual is ever lucky enough to find what they're looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it - Or, perhaps, a result of collecting is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps.

Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils, animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

In the past - and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent - a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting. This might involve trying to see every locomotive of a particular type, using published data that identifies each one, and ticking off each engine as it is seen. Trainspotters exchange information, these days often by mobile phone, so they can work out where to go to, to see a particular engine. As a by-product, many practitioners of the hobby become very knowledgeable about railway operations, or the technical specifications of different engine types.

Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today's dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

Not all collectors are interested in learning from their hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles-perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict -people, birds, maps, and so on.

One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector's individualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence, and it grew out of a personal collection.

Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. To non-collectors, it may appear an eccentric, if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

Questions 14-21
Complete the sentences below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet.

14. The writer mentions collecting ......................... as an example of collecting in order to make money.

15. Collectors may get a feeling of ......................... from buying and selling items.

16. Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ......................... .

17. Collectors’ clubs offer ......................... with people who have similar interests.

18. Collecting sometimes involves a life-long ......................... for a special item.

19. Searching for something particular may prevent people from feeling their life is completely ......................... .

20. Stamp collecting may be ......................... because it provides facts about different countries.

21. ......................... tends to be mostly a male hobby.

Questions 22-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

22. The number of people buying dolls has grown over the centuries.

23. Sixteenth century European dolls were normally made of wax and porcelain.

24. Arranging a stamp collection by the size of the stamps is less common than other methods.

25. Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

26. Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

21. Bài 21

Whatever happened to the Harappan Civilisation?

New research sheds light on the disappearance of an ancient society

A. The Harappan Civilisation of ancient Pakistan and India flourished 5,000 years ago, but a thousand years later their cities were abandoned. The Harappan Civilisation was a sophisticated Bronze Age society who built ‘megacities’ and traded internationally in luxury craft products, and yet seemed to have left almost no depictions of themselves. But their lack of self-imagery – at a time when the Egyptians were carving and painting representations of themselves all over their temples – is only part of the mystery.

B. ‘There is plenty of archaeological evidence to tell us about the rise of the Harappan Civilisation, but relatively little about its fall,’ explains archaeologist Dr Cameron Petrie of the University of Cambridge. ‘As populations increased, cities were built that had great baths, craft workshops, palaces and halls laid out in distinct sectors. Houses were arranged in blocks, with wide main streets and narrow alleyways, and many had their own wells and drainage systems. It was very much a “thriving” civilisation.’ Then around 2100 BC, a transformation began. Streets went uncleaned, buildings started to be abandoned, and ritual structures fell out of use. After their final demise, a millennium passed before really large-scale cities appeared once more in South Asia.

C. Some have claimed that major glacier-fed rivers changed their course, dramatically affecting the water supply and agriculture; or that the cities could not cope with an increasing population, they exhausted their resource base, the trading economy broke down or they succumbed to invasion and conflict; and yet others that climate change caused an environmental change that affected food and water provision. ‘It is unlikely that there was a single cause for the decline of the civilisation. But the fact is, until now, we have had little solid evidence from the area for most of the key elements,’ said Petrie. ‘A lot of the archaeological debate has really only been well-argued speculation.’

D. A research team led by Petrie, together with Dr Ravindanath Singh of Banaras Hindu University in India, found early in their investigations that many of the archaeological sites were not where they were supposed to be, completely altering understanding of the way that this region was inhabited in the past. When they carried out a survey of how the larger area was settled in relation to sources of water, they found inaccuracies in the published geographic locations of ancient settlements ranging from several hundred metres to many kilometres. They realised that any attempts to use the existing data were likely to be fundamentally flawed. Over the course of several seasons of fieldwork they carried out new surveys, finding an astonishing 198 settlement sites that were previously unknown.

E. Now, research published by Dr Yama Dixit and Professor David Hodell, both from Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences, has provided the first definitive evidence for climate change affecting the plains of north-western India, where hundreds of Harappan sites are known to have been situated. The researchers gathered shells of Melanoides tuberculate snails from the sediments of an ancient lake and used geochemical analysis as a means of tracing the climate history of the region. ‘As today, the major source of water into the lake is likely to have been the summer monsoon,’ says Dixit. ‘But we have observed that there was an abrupt change about 4,100 years ago, when the amount of evaporation from the lake exceeded the rainfall – indicative of a drought.’ Hodell adds: ‘We estimate that the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon climate lasted about 200 years before recovering to the previous conditions, which we still see today.’

F. It has long been thought that other great Bronze Age civilisations also declined at a similar time, with a global-scale climate event being seen as the cause. While it is possible that these local-scale processes were linked, the real archaeological interest lies in understanding the impact of these larger-scale events on different environments and different populations. ‘Considering the vast area of the Harappan Civilisation with its variable weather systems,’ explains Singh, ‘it is essential that we obtain more climate data from areas close to the two great cities at Mohenjodaro and Harappa and also from the Indian Punjab.’

G. Petrie and Singh’s team is now examining archaeological records and trying to understand details of how people led their lives in the region five millennia ago. They are analysing grains cultivated at the time, and trying to work out whether they were grown under extreme conditions of water stress, and whether they were adjusting the combinations of crops they were growing for different weather systems. They are also looking at whether the types of pottery used, and other aspects of their material culture, were distinctive to specific regions or were more similar across larger areas. This gives us insight into the types of interactive networks that the population was involved in, and whether those changed.

H. Petrie believes that archaeologists are in a unique position to investigate how past societies responded to environmental and climatic change. ‘By investigating responses to environmental pressures and threats, we can learn from the past to engage with the public, and the relevant governmental and administrative bodies, to be more proactive in issues such as the management and administration of water supply, the balance of urban and rural development, and the importance of preserving cultural heritage in the future.’

Questions 27-31
Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once
27. proposed explanations for the decline of the Harappan Civilisation

28. reference to a present-day application of some archaeological research findings

29. a difference between the Harappan Civilisation and another culture of the same period

30. a description of some features of Harappan urban design

31. reference to the discovery of errors made by previous archaeologists

Questions 32-36
Complete the summary below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet.

Looking at evidence of climate change

Yama Dixit and David Hodell have found the first definitive evidence of climate change affecting the plains of north-western India thousands of years ago. By collecting the 32………………………… of snails and analysing them, they discovered evidence of a change in water levels in a 33……………………….. in the region. This occurred when there was less 34…………………………….. than evaporation, and suggests that there was an extended period of drought.

Petrie and Singh’s team are using archaeological records to look at 35…………………………… from five millennia ago, in order to know whether people had adapted their agricultural practices to changing climatic conditions. They are also examining objects including 36………………………….. , so as to find out about links between inhabitants of different parts of the region and whether these changed over time.

Questions 37-40
Look at the following statements (Questions 38-40) and the list of researchers below. Match each statement with the correct researcher, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.
37. Finding further information about changes to environmental conditions in the region is vital.

38. Examining previous patterns of behaviour may have long-term benefits.

39. Rough calculations indicate the approximate length of a period of water shortage.

40. Information about the decline of the Harappan Civilisation has been lacking.

List of Researchers

A. Cameron Petrie
B. Ravindanath Singh
C. Yama Dixit
D. David Hodell

22. Bài 22

Book Review

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being

By William Davies

‘Happiness is the ultimate goal because it is self-evidently good. If we are asked why happiness matters we can give no further external reason. It just obviously does matter.’ This pronouncement by Richard Layard, an economist and advocate of ‘positive psychology’, summarises the beliefs of many people today. For Layard and others like him, it is obvious that the purpose of government is to promote a state of collective well-being. The only question is how to achieve it, and here positive psychology – a supposed science that not only identifies what makes people happy but also allows their happiness to be measured – can show the way. Equipped with this science, they say, governments can secure happiness in society in a way they never could in the past.

It is an astonishingly crude and simple-minded way of thinking, and for that very reason increasingly popular. Those who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention. It was the philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) who was more than anyone else responsible for the development of this way of thinking. For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain. The Greek philosopher Aristotle may have identified happiness with self-realisation in the 4th century BC, and thinkers throughout the ages may have struggled to reconcile the pursuit of happiness with other human values, but for Bentham all this was mere metaphysics or fiction. Without knowing anything much of him or the school of moral theory he established – since they are by education and intellectual conviction illiterate in the history of ideas – our advocates of positive psychology follow in his tracks in rejecting as outmoded and irrelevant pretty much the entirety of ethical reflection on human happiness to date.

But as William Davies notes in his recent book The Happiness Industry, the view that happiness is the only self-evident good is actually a way of limiting moral inquiry. One of the virtues of this rich, lucid and arresting book is that it places the current cult of happiness in a well-defined historical framework. Rightly, Davies his story with Bentham, noting that he was far more than a philosopher. Davies writes, ‘Bentham’s activities were those which we might now associate with a public sector management consultant’. In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes’, and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes. He drew up plans for a ‘frigidarium’ to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh. His celebrated design for a prison to be known as a ‘Panopticon’, in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all times to the guards, was very nearly adopted. (Surprisingly, Davies does not discuss the fact that Bentham meant his Panopticon not just as a model prison but also as an instrument of control that could be applied to schools and factories.)

Bentham was also a pioneer of the ‘science of happiness’. If happiness is to be regarded as a science, it has to be measured, and Bentham suggested two ways in which this might be done. Viewing happiness as a complex of pleasurable sensations, he suggested that it might be quantified by measuring the human pulse rate. Alternatively, money could be used as the standard for quantification: if two different goods have the same price, it can be claimed that they produce the same quantity of pleasure in the consumer. Bentham was more attracted by the latter measure. By associating money so closely to inner experience, Davies writes, Bentham ‘set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century’.

The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism. We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies. In addition, Davies shows how the belief that inner of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed management studies and advertising. The tendency of thinkers such as J B Watson, the founder of behaviourism*, was that human beings could be shaped, or manipulated, by policymakers and managers. Watson had no factual basis for his view of human action. When he became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915, he ‘had never even studied a single human being’: his research had been confined to experiments on white rats. Yet Watson’s reductive model is now widely applied, with ‘behaviour change’ becoming the goal of governments: in Britain, a ‘Behaviour Insights Team’ has been established by the government to study how people can be encouraged, at minimum cost to the public purse, to live in what are considered to be socially desirable ways.

Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness to motivate them in their labours. But whatever its intellectual pedigree, the idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom.
* ‘behaviourism’: a branch of psychology which is concerned with observable behaviour

Questions 27-29
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.
27. What is the reviewer’s attitude to advocates of positive psychology?

A. They are wrong to reject the ideas of Bentham.

B. They are over-influenced by their study of Bentham’s theories.

C. They have a fresh new approach to ideas on human happiness.

D. They are ignorant about the ideas they should be considering.
28. The reviewer refers to the Greek philosopher Aristotle in order to suggest that happiness

A. may not be just pleasure and the absence of pain.

B. should not be the main goal of humans.

C. is not something that should be fought for.

D. is not just an abstract concept.
29. According to Davies, Bentham’s suggestion for linking the price of goods to happiness was significant because

A. it was the first successful way of assessing happiness.

B. it established a connection between work and psychology.

C. it was the first successful example of psychological research.

D. it involved consideration of the rights of consumers.

Questions 30-34
Complete the summary using the list of words A-G below. Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 30-34 on your answer sheet.

Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham was active in other areas besides philosophy. In the 1970s he suggested a type of technology to improve 30……………………… for different Government departments. He developed a new way of printing banknotes to increase 31………………………… and also designed a method for the 32 …………………………. of food. He also drew up plans for a prison which allowed the 33…………………………. of prisoners at al times, and believed the same design could be used for other institutions as well. When researching happiness, he investigated possibilities for its 34……………………….., and suggested some methods of doing this.

A. measurement
B. security
C. implementation
D. profits
E. observation
F. communication
G. preservation

Questions 35-40
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet, write:

YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
35. One strength of The Happiness Industry is its discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics.

36. It is more difficult to measure some emotions than others.

37. Watson’s ideas on behaviourism were supported by research on humans he carried out before 1915.

38. Watson’s ideas have been most influential on governments outside America.

39. The need for happiness is linked to industrialisation.

40. A main aim of government should be to increase the happiness of the population.

23. Bài 23

The growth of bike-sharing schemes around the world

A. The original idea for an urban bike-sharing scheme dates back to a summer’s day in Amsterdam in 1965. Provo, the organisation that came up with the idea, was a group of Dutch activists who wanted to change society. They believed the scheme, which was known as the Witte Fietsenplan, was an answer to the perceived threats of air pollution and consumerism. In the centre of Amsterdam, they painted a small number of used bikes white. They also distributed leaflets describing the dangers of cars and inviting people to use the white bikes. The bikes were then left unlocked at various locations around the city, to be used by anyone in need of transport.
B. Luud Schimmelpennink, a Dutch industrial engineer who still lives and cycles in Amsterdam, was heavily involved in the original scheme. He recalls how the scheme succeeded in attracting a great deal of attention — particularly when it came to publicising Provo’s aims — but struggled to get off the ground. The police were opposed to Provo’s initiatives and almost as soon as the white bikes were distributed around the city, they removed them. However, for Schimmelpennink and for bike-sharing schemes in general, this was just the beginning. ‘The first Witte Fietsenplan was just a symbolic thing,’ he says. ‘We painted a few bikes white, that was all. Things got more serious when I became a member of the Amsterdam city council two years later.’

C. Schimmelpennink seized this opportunity to present a more elaborate Witte Fietsen plan to the city council. ‘My idea was that the municipality of Amsterdam would distribute 10,000 white bikes over the city, for everyone to use,’ he explains. ‘I made serious calculations. It turned out that a white bicycle — per person, per kilometre — would cost the municipality only 10% of what it contributed to public transport per person per kilometre.’ Nevertheless, the council unanimously rejected the plan. ‘They said that the bicycle belongs to the past. They saw a glorious future for the car,’ says Schimmelpennink. But he was not in the least discouraged.

D. Schimmelpennink never stopped believing in bike-sharing, and in the mid-90s, two Danes asked for his help to set up a system in Copenhagen. The result was the world’s first large-scale bike-share programme. It worked on a deposit: ‘You dropped a coin in the bike and when you returned it, you got your money back.’ After setting up the Danish system, Schimmelpennink decided to try his luck again in the Netherlands — and this time he succeeded in arousing the interest of the Dutch Ministry of Transport. ‘Times had changed,’ he recalls. ‘People had become more environmentally conscious, and the Danish experiment had proved that bike-sharing was a real possibility.’ A new Witte Fietsenplan was launched in 1999 in Amsterdam. However, riding a white bike was no longer free; it cost one guilder per trip and payment was made with a chip card developed by the Dutch bank Postbank. Schimmelpennink designed conspicuous, sturdy white bikes locked in special racks which could be opened with the chip card — the plan started with 250 bikes, distributed over five stations.

E. Theo Molenaar, who was a system designer for the project, worked alongside Schimmelpennink. ‘I remember when we were testing the bike racks, he announced that he had already designed better ones. But of course, we had to go through with the ones we had.’ The system, however, was prone to vandalism and theft. ‘After every weekend there would always be a couple of bikes missing,’ Molenaar says.‘| really have no idea what people did with them, because they could instantly be recognised as white bikes.’ But the biggest blow came when Postbank decided to abolish the chip card, because it wasn’t profitable. ‘That chip card was pivotal to the system,’ Molenaar says. ‘To continue the project we would have needed to set up another system, but the business partner had lost interest.’

F. Schimmelpennink was disappointed, but — characteristically — not for long. In 2002 he got a call from the French advertising corporation JC Decaux, who wanted to set up his bike-sharing scheme in Vienna. ‘That went really well. After Vienna, they set up a system in Lyon. Then in 2007, Paris followed. That was a decisive moment in the history of bike-sharing.’ The huge and unexpected success of the Parisian bike-sharing programme, which now boasts more than 20,000 bicycles, inspired cities all over the world to set up their own schemes, all modelled on Schimmelpennink’s. ‘It’s wonderful that this happened,’ he says. ‘But financially I didn’t really benefit from it, because | never filed for a patent.’
G. In Amsterdam today, 38% of all trips are made by bike and, along with Copenhagen, it is regarded as one of the two most cycle-friendly capitals in the world — but the city never got another Witte Fietsenplan. Molenaar believes this may be because everybody in Amsterdam already has a bike. Schimmelpennink, however, cannot see that this changes Amsterdam’s need for a bike-sharing scheme. ‘People who travel on the underground don’t carry their bikes around. But often they need additional transport to reach their final destination.’ Although he thinks it is strange that a city like Amsterdam does not have a successful bike-sharing scheme, he is optimistic about the future. ‘In the 60s we didn’t stand a chance because people were prepared to give their lives to keep cars in the city. But that mentality has totally changed.

Questions 14 – 18

The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

14. a description of how people misused a bike-sharing scheme
15. an explanation of why a proposed bike-sharing scheme was turned down
16. a reference to a person being unable to profit from their work
17. an explanation of the potential savings a bike-sharing scheme would bring

18. a reference to the problems a bike-sharing scheme was intended to solve

Questions 19 and 20

Choose TWO letters, A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 19 and 20 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about the Amsterdam bike-sharing scheme of 1999?

A. It was initially opposed by a government department.
B. It failed when a partner in the scheme withdrew support.
C. It aimed to be more successful than the Copenhagen scheme.
D. It was made possible by a change in people’s attitudes.
E. It attracted interest from a range of bike designers.

Questions 21 and 22

Choose TWO letters, A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 21 and 22 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about Amsterdam today?

A. The majority of residents would like to prevent all cars from entering the city.
B. There is little likelihood of the city having another bike-sharing scheme.
C. More trips in the city are made by bike than by any other form of transport.
D. A bike-sharing scheme would benefit residents who use public transport.
E. The city has a reputation as a place that welcomes cyclists.

Questions 23 – 26

Complete the summary below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

The first urban bike-sharing scheme

The first bike-sharing scheme was the idea of the Dutch group Provo. The people who belonged to this group were (23)…….…………. They were concerned about damage to the environment and about (24)…….……………, and believed that the bike-sharing scheme would draw attention to these issues. As well as painting some bikes white, they handed out (25)………….………. that condemned the use of cars.

However, the scheme was not a great success: almost as quickly as Provo left the bikes around the city, the (26)………..……….. took them away. According to Schimmelpennink, the scheme was intended to be symb